On Consciousness

Posted originally by MaryElizabethSings on the blog of AJC journalist and blogger, Jay Bookman, on May 18, 2017:

MaryElizabethSings

“Special Counsel Robert Mueller, former FBI Director, earned his law degree from the University of Virginia which was founded by the author of the American Declaration of Independence from Great Britain, Thomas Jefferson, the founder of the Democratic-Republican Party which later became the Democratic Party. Robert Mueller may well save our precious democratic republic from itself.”

MaryElizabethSings
“From ‘Higher Consciousness’ found in Wikipedia:

Reinhold
Karl Leonhard Reinhold published two volumes of Letters Concerning the Kantian Philosophy in 1790 and 1792. They provided a clear explication of Kant’s thoughts, which were previously inaccessible due to Kant’s use of complex or technical language.

Reinhold also tried to prove Kant’s assertion that humans and other animals can know only images that appear in their minds, never “things-in-themselves” (things that are not mere appearances in a mind). In order to establish his proof, Reinhold stated an axiom that could not possibly be doubted. From this axiom, all knowledge of consciousness could be deduced. His axiom was: “Representation is distinguished in consciousness by the subject from the subject and object, and is referred to both.”

He thereby started, not from definitions, but, from a principle that referred to mental images or representations in a conscious mind. In this way, he analyzed knowledge into (1) the knowing subject, or observer, (2) the known object, and (3) the image or representation in the subject’s mind. In order to understand transcendental idealism, it is necessary to reflect deeply enough to distinguish experience as consisting of these three components: subject, subject’s representation of object, and object.”

MaryElizabethSings

“In case some did not see from the above WHY I try to get others not to think in stereotypes, caricatures, and cliches.

The person observed is unique in themselves. However, we put an image of that person in our minds. When we think of others as stereotypes instead of who they truly are uniquely, we have profoundly missed seeing the truth of who that person actually is. One example of higher consciousness applied to everyday life.”

MaryElizabethSings

“From the above from Wikipedia on ‘consciousness’:

‘Western philosophers, since the time of Descartes and Locke, have struggled to comprehend the nature of consciousness and identify its essential properties. Issues of concern in the philosophy of consciousness include whether the concept is fundamentally coherent; whether consciousness can ever be explained mechanistically; whether non-human consciousness exists and if so how can it be recognized; how consciousness relates to language; whether consciousness can be understood in a way that does not require a dualistic distinction between mental and physical states or properties; and whether it may ever be possible for computing machines like computers or robots to be conscious, a topic studied in the field of artificial intelligence.

Thanks to developments in technology over the past few decades, consciousness has become a significant topic of interdisciplinary research in cognitive science, with significant contributions from fields such as psychology, neuropsychology and neuroscience. The primary focus is on understanding what it means biologically and psychologically for information to be present in consciousness—that is, on determining the neural and psychological correlates of consciousness. The majority of experimental studies assess consciousness in humans by asking subjects for a verbal report of their experiences (e.g., “tell me if you notice anything when I do this”). Issues of interest include phenomena such as subliminal perception, blindsight, denial of impairment, and altered states of consciousness produced by alcohol and other drugs, or spiritual or meditative techniques.’ “

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